Statistics is the mathematical discipline dealing with all stages of data analysis, from question design and data collection to analyzing and presenting results. It is an important field for analyzing and understanding data from scientific research and industry. Data-driven decisions are a critical part of modern business, allowing companies to use data and computational analyses to guide their choices and direction, rather than subjective measures like intuition.
"I believe that we do not know anything for certain, but everything probably." —Christiaan HuygensHave you ever wondered how health insurance premiums are calculated or why healthcare is so expensive? Or what led to the financial crisis of 2008? Or whether nuclear power is safe? The answers to these questions require an understanding of probability, which is the best tool that we have for coping with an uncertain world. In fact, an understanding of probability is required for professionals in a large number of fields, including data science, finance, engineering, biology, chemistry, medicine and actuarial science.
What is the half-derivative of x?Fractional calculus studies the extension of derivatives and integrals to such fractional orders, along with methods of solving differential equations involving these fractional-order derivatives and integrals. This branch is becoming more and more popular in fluid dynamics, control theory, signal processing and other areas. Realizing the importance and potential of this topic, we have added support for fractional derivatives and integrals in the recent release of Version 13.1 of the Wolfram Language.
Two years ago we released Version 12.0 of the Wolfram Language. Here are the updates in cryptography, blockchains and NFTs since then, including the latest features in 13.0. The contents of this post are compiled from Stephen Wolfram's Release Announcements for 12.1, 12.2, 12.3 and 13.0.
Cryptography & Security (December 2020)One of the things we want to do with Wolfram Language is to make it as easy as possible to connect with pretty much any external system. And in modern times an important part of that is being able to conveniently handle cryptographic protocols. And ever since we started introducing cryptography directly into the Wolfram Language five years ago, I’ve been surprised at just how much the symbolic character of the Wolfram Language has allowed us to clarify and streamline things to do with cryptography.
One of the many surprising (and to me, unexpected) implications of our Physics Project is its suggestion of a very deep correspondence between the foundations of physics and mathematics. We might have imagined that physics would have certain laws, and mathematics would have certain theories, and that while they might be historically related, there wouldn’t be any fundamental formal correspondence between them.
But what our Physics Project suggests is that underneath everything we physically experience there is a single very general abstract structure—that we call the ruliad—and that our physical laws arise in an inexorable way from the particular samples we take of this structure. We can think of the ruliad as the entangled limit of all possible computations—or in effect a representation of all possible formal processes. And this then leads us to the idea that perhaps the ruliad might underlie not only physics but also mathematics—and that everything in mathematics, like everything in physics, might just be the result of sampling the ruliad.