Wolfram Blog
Kevin Daily

Spikey Bird: Creating a Flappy Bird Mod in the Wolfram Language

December 28, 2017 — Kevin Daily, Wolfram Technology Group, Team Lead

Flappy Bird and Spikey Bird

An earlier version of this post appeared on Wolfram Community, where the creation of a game interface earned the author a staff pick from the forum moderators. Be sure to head over to Wolfram Community and check out other innovative uses of the Wolfram Language!

If you like video games and you’re interested in designing them, you should know that the Wolfram Language is great at making dynamic interfaces. I’ve taken a simple game, reproduced it and modded it with ease. Yes, it’s true—interactive games are yet another avenue for creative people to use the versatile Wolfram Language to fulfill their electronic visions.

The game I’m using for this demonstration is Flappy Bird, a well-known mobile game with a simple yet captivating interactive element that has helped many people kill a lot of time. The goal of the game is to navigate a series of pipes, where each successful pass adds a point to your score. The challenge is that the character, the bird, is not so easy to control. Gravity is constantly pulling it down. You “flap” to boost yourself upward by repeatedly tapping the screen, but you must accurately time your flaps to navigate the narrow gaps between pipes.

So follow along and see what kind of graphical gaming mayhem is possible in just a few short lines of code!

Creating Spikey

I’m going to make Spikey Bird by implementing the gameplay features of Flappy Bird. Our character is going to be Spikey:

Input 1

spikey = RemoveBackground[
   ImageCrop[
    Rasterize[Style["\[MathematicaIcon]", FontSize -> 200],
     ImageResolution -> 700]]];
spikey = ImageResize[spikey, ImageDimensions[spikey]/40]

Considering the season, let’s make Spikey festive:

Input 3

santaHat = ImageCrop[RemoveBackground[\!\(\*GraphicsBox[
TagBox[RasterBox[CompressedData["CUSTOMIMAGEDATA"], {{0,
         2338}, {2200, 0}}, {0, 255},ColorFunction->RGBColor],
        BoxForm`ImageTag[
        "Byte", ColorSpace -> "RGB", Interleaving -> True],
        Selectable->False],DefaultBaseStyle->"ImageGraphics",
       ImageSize->{29., Automatic},ImageSizeRaw->{2200, 2338},
       PlotRange->{{0, 2200}, {0, 2338}}]\)]];
spikey = ImageCompose[
  ImagePad[spikey, {{0, 0}, {0, 7}}, RGBColor[1, 1, 1, 0]],
  ImageResize[santaHat, ImageDimensions[santaHat]/46]]

Game Plan

The gameplay is going to make heavy use of Dynamic within a Graphics expression. Going into all details of how Dynamic works is beyond the scope of this blog, but you can learn more about it watching this great video and reading the extensive documentation.

I’m going to purposely put the most dynamic expressions into an infinite loop. Each update to the dynamic expression is going to take only a fraction of a second—the faster, the better.

The rest of this post is organized around the game’s main mechanic elements:

  • Gravity
  • Player input (controls)
  • Creating objects with automatic movement
  • Hit detection
  • Scoring
  • Sprite animations, sounds and other aesthetics

Designing Gravity

Gravity acts to accelerate an object downward. An acceleration is just a change in velocity per time step, and velocity is just a change in position per time step. One method for modeling gravity is to have velocity update before the position updates:

Input 5

SetAttributes[updateSpikeyPosition, HoldFirst];
updateSpikeyPosition[{pos_, vel_}, gravity_, ups_] := (
  vel += gravity/ups/ups;
  pos += vel/ups;
  pos)

The rate that Dynamic can update—the “updates per second,” or UPS for short—is analogous to frames per second in modern video games. This sets a timescale that is included to slow down the apparent movement; two factors are used in acceleration (distance per second per second) and one factor in velocity (position per second).

The use of HoldFirst allows external variables, provided in the first argument, to update their definitions from within the function:

Input 7

posExample = velExample = 10;
data = Table[
   updateSpikeyPosition[{posExample, velExample}, -1, 1], {i, 25}];
ListPlot[data, AxesLabel -> {"Time Step", "Height"},
 PlotMarkers -> {"\[MathematicaIcon]", 20}, PlotStyle -> Red]

This example has the UPS set to 1. For the given parameters, it took 20 time steps to have the position return to 0. In practice, I set the UPS to be about 30, but this depends on the speed of your CPU.

Player Input

A “flap” is modeled by instantly changing the velocity opposite to gravity. Let’s set this action to the keyboard’s Ctrl key. Because this key controls Spikey’s movement, I put it inside Spikey’s movement code. If I put it somewhere else, like within some other Dynamic expression, you might perceive a slight lag when pressing the key.

It would be cheating if repeated flapping was applied by holding down the key. Thus, an instance of Switch is used to track that the key was pressed only once.

Lastly, I don’t want Spikey to leave the game world, so I include upper and lower bounds to its movement. Changes to updateSpikeyPosition are highlighted:

Input 10

SetAttributes[updateSpikeyPosition, HoldFirst];
updateSpikeyPosition[{pos_, vel_, previousKeyState_}, keyState_,
  boost_, gravity_, ups_] := (
  Switch[{previousKeyState, keyState},
   {False, True}, vel = boost; pos += vel/ups; previousKeyState = True,
   {True, False}, previousKeyState = False];
  vel += gravity/ups/ups;
  pos += vel/ups;
  Which[
   pos < 0, vel = pos = 0,
   pos > 14, pos = 14; vel = 0];
  pos)

I can create a set of controls that can modify gameplay even while you play. I separate the controls into different groups, such as the controls that affect Spikey:

Input 12

SetAttributes[playerEffects, HoldAll];
playerEffects[hPos_, kick_] := Panel[
  Grid[{
    {"Flap Speed", LabeledSlider[Dynamic[kick], {-5, 5}]},
    {"Hor. Position", LabeledSlider[Dynamic[hPos], {0, 20}]}},
   Alignment -> Left],
  "Player"]

And a set of controls that affects the whole game environment:

Input 14

SetAttributes[environmentEffects, HoldAll];
environmentEffects[ups_, gravity_, worldEdge_, imageSize_] := Panel[
  Grid[{
    {"UPS Factor", LabeledSlider[Dynamic[ups], {1, 60}]},
    {"Gravity", LabeledSlider[Dynamic[gravity], {-50, 50}]},
    {"Right Edge", LabeledSlider[Dynamic[worldEdge], {10, 20}]},
    {"Image Size", LabeledSlider[Dynamic[imageSize], {100, 500}]}},
   Alignment -> Left],
  "Environment"]

Spikey is not a graphics primitive, so I use Inset in order to insert it into the Graphics expression. The key here is to use at least the four-argument syntax for Inset so you can specify the size in the fourth argument. Otherwise, the inset object’s size does not scale with the image size of the graphics.

Putting the pieces together in an instance of DynamicModule yields our first basic interface and keeps the variables locally scoped. You can play around with different combinations of gameplay factors, even while the disk is in motion:

Input 16

DynamicModule[{vPos = 10, hPos = 3, vel = 0, ups = 30, gravity = -30,
  kick = 2, previousKeyState = False, worldEdge = 10, imageSize = 200},
 Grid[{{
    Graphics[
     Inset[spikey,
      {Dynamic[hPos],
       Dynamic[
        updateSpikeyPosition[{vPos, vel, previousKeyState},
         CurrentValue["ControlKey"], kick, gravity, ups]]},
      Center, 1.2],
     Frame -> True,
     PlotRange -> {{0, Dynamic[worldEdge]}, {0, 14}},
     ImageSize -> Dynamic[imageSize]
     ],
    Grid[{
      {playerEffects[hPos, kick]},
      {environmentEffects[ups, gravity, worldEdge, imageSize]}
      }, Alignment -> {Left, Top}]}}], SaveDefinitions -> True
 ]

Output 16 animation

Obstacle Movement

Obstacles in Spikey Bird consist of pipes, i.e. rectangles. I’m going to use vertices instead of the Rectangle primitive in anticipation of how I’ll implement hit detection:

Input 17

pipeVertices[hPos_, vPos_, pWidth_, pGap_] := {
  {{hPos, 0}, {hPos, vPos}, {pWidth + hPos, vPos}, {pWidth + hPos, 0}},
  {{hPos, vPos + pGap}, {hPos, 14}, {pWidth + hPos,
    14}, {pWidth + hPos, vPos + pGap}}}

The function allows for flexible creation of a pair of obstacles with a fixed size and gap:

Input 18

Manipulate[
 Graphics[Polygon[pipeVertices[hPos, vPos, pWidth, pGap]],
  PlotRange -> {{0, 10}, {0, 14}}, Frame -> True],
 {{hPos, 5, "Horizontal Position"}, 0, 10},
 {{vPos, 5, "Vertical Position"}, 0, 14 - pGap},
 {{pWidth, 1, "Pipe Width"}, 1, 3},
 {{pGap, 1, "Gap Width"}, 1, 4}, SaveDefinitions -> True]

I use pipeVertices for each update in order to also allow the pipe gap and other factors to dynamically change even while the game is active. The horizontal and vertical positions are extracted from the previous instance of the blocks using the Part function, but only the horizontal position is updated.

I won’t create new objects every time they leave the plot range. Instead, I reuse the object but reset its position if it goes offscreen:

Input 19

SetAttributes[updateBlockPairPosition, HoldFirst];
updateBlockPairPosition[{vertices_}, speed_, ups_, pipeWidth_,
  pipeGap_, worldEdge_] := (
  vertices =
   pipeVertices[vertices[[1, 1, 1]] + speed/ups,
    vertices[[-1, -1, -1]] - pipeGap, pipeWidth, pipeGap];
  Which[
   Max[vertices[[All, All, 1]]] < 0 && speed < 0,
   vertices =
    pipeVertices[worldEdge, RandomReal[{2, 11}], pipeWidth, pipeGap],
   Min[vertices[[All, All, 1]]] > worldEdge && speed > 0,
   vertices =
    pipeVertices[-pipeWidth, RandomReal[{2, 11}], pipeWidth, pipeGap]
   ];
  vertices)

Let’s add more gameplay controls for the obstacles:

Input 21

SetAttributes[obstacleEffects, HoldAll];
obstacleEffects[scrollSpeed_, pipeWidth_, pipeGap_] :=
 Panel[
  Grid[{
    {"Scroll Speed", LabeledSlider[Dynamic[scrollSpeed], {-5, 5}]},
    {"Pipe Width", LabeledSlider[Dynamic[pipeWidth], {0.5, 4}]},
    {"Pipe Gap", LabeledSlider[Dynamic[pipeGap], {1, 6}]}},
   Alignment -> Left],
  "Obstacles"]

Let’s also include some fun buttons. One resets the blocks, which is needed if you change the size of the playing area. One inverts gravity. And one pauses the game by temporarily setting all movement variables to zero:

Input 23

SetAttributes[buttonEffects, HoldAll];
buttonEffects[velocity_, kick_, gravity_, scrollSpeed_, obstacle1_,
  obstacle2_, pipeWidth_, pipeGap_, worldEdge_] :=
 DynamicModule[{previousMovement, pauseToggle = False,
   gravityToggle = False},
  Grid[{
    {Button["Pause",
      If[pauseToggle,
       pauseToggle = False; {gravity, scrollSpeed, kick, velocity} =
        previousMovement
       ,
       pauseToggle = True;
       previousMovement = {gravity, scrollSpeed, kick, velocity};
       gravity = scrollSpeed = kick = velocity = 0]],
     Button["Reset Block Spacing",
      If[scrollSpeed < 0,
       obstacle1 =
        pipeVertices[worldEdge, RandomReal[{2, 11}], pipeWidth,
         pipeGap];
       obstacle2 =
        pipeVertices[3/2 worldEdge, RandomReal[{2, 11}], pipeWidth,
         pipeGap];
       ,
       obstacle1 =
        pipeVertices[-pipeWidth, RandomReal[{2, 11}], pipeWidth,
         pipeGap];
       obstacle2 =
        pipeVertices[-worldEdge/2 - pipeWidth, RandomReal[{2, 11}],
         pipeWidth, pipeGap];]],
     Button["Invert Gravity",
      gravity = -gravity; velocity = 0; kick = -kick]}
    }, Alignment -> Left]
  ]

Now I have something that looks like a simplified version of Flappy Bird. First I create two pairs of pipes that are roughly equally spaced along the horizontal direction, but off of the right side of the visible plot range. There’s no hit detection yet, so you can change with the parameters to adjust the difficulty without frustration.

Input 25

DynamicModule[{vPos = 10, hPos = 3, vel = 0, ups = 30, gravity = -50,
  kick = 2, scrollSpeed = -1.6, pipeWidth = 2, pipeGap = 3.25,
  previousKeyState = False, obstacle1, obstacle2, worldEdge = 12,
  imageSize = 200},
 obstacle1 =
  pipeVertices[worldEdge, RandomReal[{2, 11}], pipeWidth, pipeGap];
 obstacle2 =
  pipeVertices[3/2 worldEdge, RandomReal[{2, 11}], pipeWidth, pipeGap];

 Grid[{{
    Framed[Graphics[{
       Inset[
        spikey, {Dynamic[hPos],
         Dynamic[updateSpikeyPosition[{vPos, vel, previousKeyState},
           CurrentValue["ControlKey"], kick, gravity, ups]]}, Center,
        1.2],
       Polygon[
        Dynamic[updateBlockPairPosition[{obstacle1}, scrollSpeed, ups,
           pipeWidth, pipeGap, worldEdge]]],
       Polygon[
        Dynamic[updateBlockPairPosition[{obstacle2}, scrollSpeed, ups,
           pipeWidth, pipeGap, worldEdge]]]
       },
      Frame -> False, PlotRange -> {{0, Dynamic[worldEdge]}, {0, 14}},
       ImageSize -> Dynamic[imageSize]
      ], FrameMargins -> -1],
    Grid[{
      {buttonEffects[vel, kick, gravity, scrollSpeed, obstacle1,
        obstacle2, pipeWidth, pipeGap, worldEdge]},
      {environmentEffects[ups, gravity, worldEdge, imageSize]},
      {playerEffects[hPos, kick]},
      {obstacleEffects[scrollSpeed, pipeWidth, pipeGap]}
      }, Spacings -> {1, 1}, Alignment -> {Left, Top}]}}],
 SaveDefinitions -> True]

Output 25 animation

Hit Detection

There are many ways to implement hit detection. I’ll implement a perimeter of points around each object and track how close Spikey gets to each point. This allows us to use more interesting polygons later with minimal effort.

Let’s add points to our existing polygons. I’ll take a walk around the polygon, so let’s add the starting point to the end of our perimeter:

Input 26

originalPolyPoints = pipeVertices[5, 5, 2, 2][[1]];
cyclic = Append[originalPolyPoints, First[originalPolyPoints]]

Now accumulate the distances between the vertices in the walk around the polygon, including zero at the start:

Input 28

accumulatedDistance =
 Prepend[Accumulate[Norm /@ Differences[cyclic]], 0.]

Linearly interpolate the x and y coordinates. This creates a function for our walk around the perimeter:

Input 29

intX = Interpolation[
   Transpose[{accumulatedDistance, cyclic[[All, 1]]}],
   InterpolationOrder -> 1];
intY = Interpolation[
   Transpose[{accumulatedDistance, cyclic[[All, 2]]}],
   InterpolationOrder -> 1];

Our walk consists of a number of steps with equal spacing. The spacing between the chosen points is small enough that Spikey can’t squeeze through two adjacent points. Before I start the interpolated walk, I join the original vertex distances to the equally spaced ones:

Input 31

spacing = 0.8;
steps = Union[Range[0, Last[accumulatedDistance], spacing],
   Most[accumulatedDistance]];
newPts = Transpose[{intX[steps], intY[steps]}]

I put all of these steps into a function:

Input 34

generatePerimeterPoints[originalPoints_, spacing_] :=
 Module[{cyclic, accumulatedDistance, intX, intY, steps},
  cyclic = Append[originalPoints, First[originalPoints]];
  accumulatedDistance =
   Prepend[Accumulate[Norm /@ Differences[cyclic]], 0.];
  intX = Interpolation[
    Transpose[{accumulatedDistance, cyclic[[All, 1]]}],
    InterpolationOrder -> 1];
  intY = Interpolation[
    Transpose[{accumulatedDistance, cyclic[[All, 2]]}],
    InterpolationOrder -> 1];
  steps =
   Union[Range[0, Last[accumulatedDistance], spacing],
    Most[accumulatedDistance]]; Transpose[{intX[steps], intY[steps]}]
  ]

Spikey hits a pipe if it gets within a minimal distance to any of the points:

Input 35

hit[position_, obstaclePoints_, dist_] :=
 Min[Norm /@ Transpose[Transpose[obstaclePoints] - position]] < dist ||
   position[[2]] > 13.5 || position[[2]] < 0.5

Here's a visualization of this effect in action. A detected hit colors the circle red:

Input 36

DynamicModule[{pos = {1, 1}},
 Grid[{{
    Graphics[{Point[newPts],
      Dynamic[If[hit[pos, newPts, 0.5], Red, Green]], Thick,
      Circle[Dynamic[pos], 0.5]},
     ImageSize -> Small, PlotRange -> {{0, 10}, {-0.1, 6}},
     Frame -> True, Axes -> False, AspectRatio -> Automatic],
    Slider2D[Dynamic[pos], {{0.5, 0.4}, {9, 5.5}}]}}],
 SaveDefinitions -> True
 ]

Output 36 animation

Scoring

Let's reward the player with a point. Every time a pair of blocks passes the player, I add a point to the score. I also set a flag to False to indicate that I should not score a second time until the block resets:

Input 37

SetAttributes[scoreFunction, HoldFirst];
scoreFunction[{score_, scoreFlag_}, hPos_, worldEdge_, speed_,
  obstacle_] := (
  If[scoreFlag &&
    (Max[obstacle[[All, All, 1]]] < hPos && speed < 0 ||
      Min[obstacle[[All, All, 1]]] > hPos && speed > 0),
   score++; scoreFlag = False];
  If[
   Max[obstacle[[All, All, 1]]] < 0 && speed < 0 ||
    Min[obstacle[[All, All, 1]]] > worldEdge && speed > 0,
   scoreFlag = True];
  )

Now let's add the scoring feature and hit detection to our game. The game objects get extra vertices by mapping generatePerimeterPoints over the pipe vertices, but updateBlockPairPosition only outputs the original vertices. This allows easier application of textures.

Scoring is added by including scoreFunction. Changes to updateBlockPairPosition are highlighted:

Input 39

SetAttributes[updateBlockPairPosition, HoldFirst];
updateBlockPairPosition[{vertices_, score_, scoreFlag_}, hPos_,
  speed_, ups_, pipeWidth_, pipeGap_, worldEdge_] :=
 Module[{originalVertices},
  originalVertices =
   pipeVertices[vertices[[1, 1, 1]] + speed/ups,
    vertices[[-1, -1, -1]] - pipeGap, pipeWidth, pipeGap];
  vertices = generatePerimeterPoints[#, 0.5] & /@ originalVertices;
  scoreFunction[{score, scoreFlag}, hPos, worldEdge, speed,
   vertices];
  Which[
   Max[vertices[[All, All, 1]]] < 0 && speed < 0,
   originalVertices =
    pipeVertices[worldEdge, RandomReal[{2, 11}], pipeWidth, pipeGap];
   vertices = generatePerimeterPoints[#, 0.5] & /@ originalVertices;
   ,
   Min[vertices[[All, All, 1]]] > worldEdge && speed > 0,
   originalVertices =
    pipeVertices[-pipeWidth, RandomReal[{2, 11}], pipeWidth,
     pipeGap];
   vertices = generatePerimeterPoints[#, 0.5] & /@ originalVertices;
   ];
  originalVertices]

Let's add a button to reset the game with the current settings so I don't have to reevaluate the function every time:

Input 41

SetAttributes[resetButton, HoldFirst];
resetButton[{score_, velocity_, kick_, gravity_, scrollSpeed_,
   obstacle1_, obstacle2_}, startingValues_, pipeWidth_, pipeGap_,
  worldEdge_] := Button["Reset Game",
  {gravity, velocity, kick, scrollSpeed} = startingValues;
  score = 0;
  If[scrollSpeed < 0,
   obstacle1 =
    pipeVertices[worldEdge, RandomReal[{2, 11}], pipeWidth, pipeGap];
   obstacle2 =
    pipeVertices[3/2 worldEdge, RandomReal[{2, 11}], pipeWidth,
     pipeGap];
   ,
   obstacle1 =
    pipeVertices[-pipeWidth, RandomReal[{2, 11}], pipeWidth,
     pipeGap];
   obstacle2 =
    pipeVertices[-worldEdge/2 - pipeWidth, RandomReal[{2, 11}],
     pipeWidth, pipeGap];]]

Let's add a button to toggle the hit detection so it's only on when I'm ready for it:

Input 43

SetAttributes[hitEffects, HoldAll];
hitEffects[hitToggle_] :=
 Button["Hit Detection",
  If[hitToggle, hitToggle = False, hitToggle = True],
  Appearance -> Dynamic[If[hitToggle, "Pressed", Automatic]]]

Putting It All Together

In addition to the hit detection and scoring, some finishing touches include styling the objects and the background. Changes to the interface are highlighted:

Input 45

DynamicModule[{vPos = 10, hPos = 3, vel = 0, ups = 30, gravity = -50,
  kick = 2, scrollSpeed = -1.6, pipeWidth = 2, pipeGap = 3.25,
  previousKeyState = False, obstacle1, obstacle2, worldEdge = 14.5,
  imageSize = 500, hitToggle = True, score = 0, canScore1 = True,
  canScore2 = True, startingValues},
 obstacle1 =
  generatePerimeterPoints[#, 0.5] & /@
   pipeVertices[worldEdge, RandomReal[{2, 11}], pipeWidth, pipeGap];
 obstacle2 =
  generatePerimeterPoints[#, 0.5] & /@
   pipeVertices[3/2 worldEdge, RandomReal[{2, 11}], pipeWidth,
    pipeGap];
 startingValues = {gravity, vel, kick, scrollSpeed};

 Grid[{{
    Framed[Graphics[{
       Inset[spikey,
        {Dynamic[hPos],
         Dynamic[
          If[hitToggle,

           If[hit[{hPos, vPos},
             Flatten[Join[obstacle1, obstacle2], 1], 0.5],

            If[gravity != 0 || vel != 0 || kick != 0 ||
              scrollSpeed != 0,
             startingValues = {gravity, vel, kick, scrollSpeed}];
            gravity = vel = kick = scrollSpeed = 0]];

          updateSpikeyPosition[{vPos, vel, previousKeyState},
           CurrentValue["ControlKey"], kick, gravity, ups]
          ]}, Center, 1.2],
       {EdgeForm[Black],
        Texture[{{{1, 0, 0}, {1, 1, 1}, {1, 1, 1}}}],
        Polygon[
         Dynamic[updateBlockPairPosition[{obstacle1, score,
            canScore1}, hPos, scrollSpeed, ups, pipeWidth, pipeGap,
           worldEdge]],
         VertexTextureCoordinates ->
          3 {{0, 0}, {1, 1}, {2, 0}, {1, -1}}]},
       {EdgeForm[Black],
        Texture[{{{1, 0, 0}, {1, 1, 1}, {1, 1, 1}}}],
        Polygon[
         Dynamic[updateBlockPairPosition[{obstacle2, score,
            canScore2}, hPos, scrollSpeed, ups, pipeWidth, pipeGap,
           worldEdge]],
         VertexTextureCoordinates ->
          3 {{0, 0}, {1, 1}, {2, 0}, {1, -1}}]},
       Text[Style[Dynamic[score], 30], Scaled[{0.5, 0.8}], Center],

       },
      Frame -> False, PlotRange -> {{0, Dynamic[worldEdge]}, {0, 14}},
       ImageSize -> Dynamic[imageSize], Background -> Darker[Green]
      ], FrameMargins -> -1],
    Grid[{
      {buttonEffects[{vel, kick, gravity, scrollSpeed, obstacle1,
         obstacle2}, pipeWidth, pipeGap, worldEdge]},
      {hitEffects[hitToggle]},
      {resetButton[{score, vel, kick, gravity, scrollSpeed, obstacle1,
          obstacle2}, startingValues, pipeWidth, pipeGap,
        worldEdge]},
      {environmentEffects[ups, gravity, worldEdge, imageSize]},
      {playerEffects[hPos, kick]},
      {obstacleEffects[scrollSpeed, pipeWidth, pipeGap]}},
     Alignment -> Left]}
   }, Spacings -> {1, 1}, Alignment -> {Left, Top}],
 SaveDefinitions -> True
 ]

Output 45 animation

Final Thoughts

With just a couple hundred unique lines of code, I was able to implement Spikey Bird using the Wolfram Language. Not only that, all of the gameplay parameters were left open to change while you play, kind of like not-so-hidden developers' tools. If you got rid of the developers' tools, then the code would be considerably shorter!

Here are some suggestions you can try on your own:

  • Play the game using only the "Invert Gravity" button.
  • Modify the blocks to fall from the top of the screen to the bottom (similar to classic "flight" games).
  • Change the obstacles to randomly generated polygons instead of rectangles, and add more of them!
  • Add sound effects in appropriate places using EmitSound.

Bonus Suggestion 1: Using Sprites Instead of Primitives

I'm not an artist, but the Wolfram Language makes it simple to include bitmap graphics. For example, I can screen capture images from the internet and import them. Like I did with Spikey, it's often sufficient to just use ImageCrop and RemoveBackground, then use Inset to include it in a graphics expression. It's important to keep the image size small, though, or updates to the image can take time to render for each update. The polygons will still be needed for hit detection, but the images sit on top of them:

Input 46

pipe = \!\(\*GraphicsBox[
TagBox[RasterBox[CompressedData["
1:eJzt2PtXVOUex3Hy9EM/nv8gxBS8zMQtHEVrZSUXgWD27LkPCswAQwYyjKio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EEIIIYQQQgghhBBCCCGEEEIIIYQQQgghhBBCCCGEEEIIIYQQQgj/l/r/ABBW
hlw=
"], {{0, 158}, {400, 0}}, {0, 65535},ColorFunction->RGBColor],
     BoxForm`ImageTag[
     "Bit16", ColorSpace -> "RGB", Interleaving -> True,
      MetaInformation -> Association[
       "Exif" -> Association[
         "Software" -> "Created with the Wolfram Language : \
www.wolfram.com",
          "DateTime" -> DateObject[{2017, 7, 25, 9, 51, 31.},
            "Instant", "Gregorian", -6.]],
        "Comments" -> Association[
         "Software" -> "Created with the Wolfram Language : \
www.wolfram.com",
          "Creation Time" -> DateObject[{2017, 7, 25, 9, 51, 31.},
            "Instant", "Gregorian", -6.]]]],Selectable->False],
    DefaultBaseStyle->"ImageGraphics",ImageSizeRaw->{400, 158},
    PlotRange->{{0, 400}, {0, 158}}]\);

You can even restyle your images using ImageRestyle:

Input 47

artStyles = {\!\(\*GraphicsBox[
TagBox[RasterBox[CompressedData["CUSTOMIMAGEDATA"], {{0, 150}, {150, 0}}, {0., 1.},
        ColorFunction->RGBColor],BoxForm`ImageTag[
       "Real", ColorSpace -> "RGB", Interleaving -> True],
       Selectable->False],DefaultBaseStyle->"ImageGraphics",
      ImageSizeRaw->{150, 150},
      PlotRange->{{0, 150}, {0, 150}}]\), \!\(\*GraphicsBox[
TagBox[RasterBox[CompressedData["CUSTOMIMAGEDATA"], {{0, 300}, {480, 0}}, {0,
         255},ColorFunction->RGBColor],BoxForm`ImageTag[
       "Byte", ColorSpace -> "RGB", ImageResolution -> {72, 72},
        Interleaving -> True,
        MetaInformation -> Association[
         "Exif" -> Association[
           "Software" -> "Created with the Wolfram Language : \
www.wolfram.com"]]],Selectable->False],
      DefaultBaseStyle->"ImageGraphics",ImageSizeRaw->{480, 300},
      PlotRange->{{0, 480}, {0, 300}}]\), \!\(\*GraphicsBox[
TagBox[RasterBox[CompressedData["CUSTOMIMAGEDATA"], {{0, 276}, {400, 0}}, {0,
         255},ColorFunction->RGBColor],BoxForm`ImageTag[
       "Byte", ColorSpace -> ColorProfileData[CompressedData[
"CUSTOMIMAGEDATA"], "RGB", "XYZ"],
        ImageResolution -> {300, 300}, Interleaving -> True,
        MetaInformation -> Association[
         "Exif" -> Association[
           "Orientation" -> Association[
             "CameraTopOrientation" -> Top, "Mirrored" -> False],
            "XResolution" -> 300, "YResolution" -> 300,
            "ResolutionUnit" -> "inch",
            "Software" -> "Created with the Wolfram Language : \
www.wolfram.com",
            "DateTime" -> DateObject[{2017, 3, 9, 11, 56, 18.},
              "Instant", "Gregorian", 2.], "PixelXDimension" -> 750,
            "PixelYDimension" -> 519]]],Selectable->False],
      DefaultBaseStyle->"ImageGraphics",ImageSizeRaw->{400, 276},
      PlotRange->{{0, 400}, {0, 276}}]\), \!\(\*GraphicsBox[
TagBox[RasterBox[CompressedData["CUSTOMIMAGEDATA"], {{0, 250}, {400, 0}}, {0, 255},
        ColorFunction->RGBColor],BoxForm`ImageTag[
       "Byte", ColorSpace -> "RGB", ImageResolution -> {72, 72},
        Interleaving -> True,
        MetaInformation -> Association[
         "Exif" -> Association[
           "Orientation" -> Association[
             "CameraTopOrientation" -> Top, "Mirrored" -> False],
            "XResolution" -> 72, "YResolution" -> 72,
            "ResolutionUnit" -> "inch",
            "Software" -> "Created with the Wolfram Language : \
www.wolfram.com",
            "DateTime" -> DateObject[{2017, 5, 30, 17, 18, 42.},
              "Instant", "Gregorian", 2.], "ExifVersion" -> "2.21",
            "ComponentsConfiguration" -> "Y",
            "FlashpixVersion" -> "1.00", "ColorSpace" -> "RGBColor",
            "PixelXDimension" -> 1024, "PixelYDimension" -> 640,
            "SceneCaptureType" -> "Standard"]]],Selectable->False],
      DefaultBaseStyle->"ImageGraphics",ImageSizeRaw->{400, 250},
      PlotRange->{{0, 400}, {0, 250}}]\)};

Input 48

cityStyles =
  Prepend[SetAlphaChannel[ImageRestyle[city, #],
      AlphaChannel[city]] & /@ artStyles, city];

Input 49

groundStyles =
  Prepend[ImageRestyle[ground, #] & /@ artStyles, ground];

Input 50

groundStyles =
  Prepend[ImageRestyle[ground, #] & /@ artStyles, ground];

Input 51

domColors = {RGBColor[
   0.44313725490196076`, 0.7725490196078432, 0.8117647058823529],
   GrayLevel[0.9], RGBColor[
   0.8257116158191437, 0.7624872802598549, 0.6834260771904932],
   RGBColor[
   0.9275118744483869, 0.8953480709038453, 0.7543210863558273],
   RGBColor[
   0.2386547585427879, 0.4876022587659778, 0.7371873300590905]};

Input 52

styleControl =
  Thread[Range[5] ->
    Prepend[artStyles, Image[ConstantArray[1, {150, 150}]]]];

Here's an example of what the game could look like with a little more effort:

Input 53

Manipulate[
 Graphics[{
   Inset[cityStyles[[art]], {-5, 2}, Scaled[{0, 0}], 10],
   Inset[spikey, {-2, 9}, Center, 1.2],
   Inset[ImageReflect[pipeStyles[[art]], Top], {x0, height},
    Scaled[{0, 1}], pWidth],
   Inset[pipeStyles[[art]], {x0, height + pGap}, Scaled[{0, 0}],
    pWidth],
   If[draw,
    {FaceForm[None], EdgeForm[Red],
     Polygon[pipeVertices[x0, height, pWidth, pGap]]},
    {}],
   Inset[groundStyles[[art]], {-5, 2.3}, Scaled[{0, 1}], 10]},
  PlotRange -> {{-5, 5}, {0, 14}}, Background -> domColors[[art]],
  PlotRangeClipping -> True],
 {{x0, 1.08, "Hor. Position"}, -5, 5},
 {{pWidth, 1.745, "Pipe Width"}, 1, 4},
 {{height, 7.62, "Gap Position"}, 0, 12},
 {{pGap, 2.248, "Gap Width"}, 1, 3},
 {{draw, False, "Draw Hit Box"}, {True, False}},
 {{art, 1, "Art Styles"}, styleControl}, SaveDefinitions -> True]

Bonus Suggestion 2: Animation

Animation can add another polished element to your game, but it will use the CPU continuously:

Input 54

animationFrames = {\!\(\*GraphicsBox[
TagBox[RasterBox[CompressedData["
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JWH9
"], {{0, 29}, {38, 0}}, {0, 255},ColorFunction->RGBColor],
       BoxForm`ImageTag[
       "Byte", ColorSpace -> "RGB", Interleaving -> True,
        MetaInformation -> Association[
         "Exif" -> Association[
           "Software" -> "Created with the Wolfram Language : \
www.wolfram.com"],
          "Comments" -> Association[
           "Software" -> "Created with the Wolfram Language : \
www.wolfram.com",
            "Creation Time" -> DateObject[{2017, 7, 25, 9, 27, 5.},
              "Instant", "Gregorian", -6.]]]],Selectable->False],
      DefaultBaseStyle->"ImageGraphics",ImageSizeRaw->{38, 29},
      PlotRange->{{0, 38}, {0, 29}}]\), \!\(\*GraphicsBox[
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ListAnimate[animationFrames, AnimationRate -> 2]

The ground is unique in that the image never changes. To create the illusion of continuous movement, you can reset its position at a certain point, exactly like I do with the obstacles:

Input 56

SetAttributes[updateGroundPosition, HoldFirst];
updateGroundPosition[{groundPos_}, groundResetValue_, vel_,
  ups_] := (
  groundPos += vel/ups;
  If[groundPos < -groundResetValue, groundPos = 0];
  groundPos)

For continuously updating sprites, like the bird, the Clock function is often sufficient to cycle through the animation frames at a fixed rate:

Input 58

DynamicModule[{vPos = 10, hPos = 3, vel = 0, ups = 30, gravity = -50,
  kick = 2, previousKeyState = False, worldEdge = 10, imageSize = 250,
   groundPos = 0, groundResetValue = 0.71},

 Framed[Graphics[{
    Inset[city, {0, -0.6}, Scaled[{0, 0}], 10],
    Inset[Dynamic[animationFrames[[Clock[{1, 4, 1}, 0.5]]]],
     {hPos,
      Dynamic[
       updateSpikeyPosition[{vPos, vel, previousKeyState},
        CurrentValue["ControlKey"], kick, gravity, ups]
       ]}, Center, 1.2],
    Inset[
     ground, {Dynamic[
       updateGroundPosition[{groundPos}, groundResetValue, -0.7,
        ups]], -0.3}, Scaled[{0, 1}], 12]
    },
   PlotRange -> {{0, worldEdge}, {-2, 12}}, ImageSize -> imageSize,
   Background ->
    RGBColor[0.44313725490196076`, 0.7725490196078432,
     0.8117647058823529]
   ], FrameMargins -> -1], SaveDefinitions -> True
 ]

Output 58 animation

The worst case is noncontinuous movement, such as movement that is triggered by pressing a button. I still want the dynamic expression to update as fast as possible such that our position updates like normal, but I don't want the animation frames to cycle at the same rate. I tend to use an instance of Mod to introduce a delay into the update of the frame index:

Input 59

DynamicModule[{animationCounter = 0, animationDelay = 10,
  frameCounter = 1},
 Dynamic[
  If[CurrentValue["ControlKey"],
   animationCounter++;
   If[Mod[animationCounter, animationDelay] == 0,
    animationCounter = 0; frameCounter++];
   If[frameCounter == 5, frameCounter = 1]];
  animationFrames[[frameCounter]]
  ], SaveDefinitions -> True
 ]


If you'd like to play around with the code you read about today, you can download this post as a Wolfram Notebook.

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